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Uzbekistan


Area: 447, 8 thous.sq km (roughly the size of Sweden).
Capital: Tashkent.
Time: GMT + 5:00.
Country Code: +998.
Languages: Uzbek, Russian, Tajik, Karakalpak.
Money sum: US$1 = 1311 sum (August 2008).
Population: 27 million (50,4 people per square kilometer), ( the most populous in Central Asia, more than 60 %).
Phrases: Hello (assalomu aleykum); Thank you (rakhmat), good bye ( khayr).
Ethnic Groups: 80% Uzbek, 5% Tajik, 5% Russian and 7% others.

Location and geography.
The Republic of Uzbekistan the ‘land of the Uzbeks' lies in the heart of Asia, between the two major rivers of Central Asia, the Syr Darya (Jaxartes) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), in the territory known since ancient times as Bactria, Maverannahr ( the land beyond the river), and later on as Turkestan. Uzbekistan forms the very centre of ex-Soviet Central Asia, for it alone boarders on each of the new republics - Kazakhstan to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east and southeast, Turkmenistan to the southwest, as well as Afghanistan to the south.
Administratively the republic consists of the republic of Karakalpakistan (Capital - Nukus town territory - 166,59 thousand sq.km. Population - 1551, 9 thousand people) and 12 regions (Andijan, Bukhara, Jizzakh, Kashkadarya, Navoi, Namangan, Samarkand, Surkhandarya, Sirdarya, Tashkent, Ferghana, Khorezm).
Uzbekistan's blend of desert, steppe, oases and river valleys places it at the heart of the complex interaction of nomadic culture and oasis settlement that patterns the history of Central Asia. Most of the territory of Uzbekistan is occupied by plains (near four fifth of the territory). One of the main is the Turanian plain (lowland). There is one of the largest deserts of the world - the Kizilkum desert on the north of central part of the territory of Uzbekistan. In the east and northeast of the country are situated spurs of Tien - Shan and the Pamirs, here is the highest spot of the country (4 643 м).

Climate.
Uzbekistan is a dry country aptly termed ‘the sunny republic', as every year brings over 300 days of sunshine and 300 millimeters (12 inches) of rainfall. The climate is classified as continental, with hot summers and cool winters. Summer temperatures often surpass 40 degrees above zero; winter temperatures average about minus 23 degrees, but may fall as low as low as minus 40.

History.
Rich archaeological remains in the area preserve an intriguing mix of Hellenistic, Buddhist and Scythian influences in the laconic desert castles of Khorezm and Bactria and trace a development to the rich Sogdian palaces and wall paintings of Varakhsha and Afrosiyab. But it was the arrival of Islam in the eighth century and its alien synthesis of styles that transformed the face of Central Asia as much as its soul.
The most powerful Kushan Empire and the kingdom of Seleucids, the Parthian Kingdom and the kingdom of Kwarazm, the state of Samanids and Tamerlane, the Bukhara Emirate, Khiva and Kokand Khanates once flourished in this region. The cities of Samarkand and Bukhara served as major centers of trade and enlightenment on the crossroads of the Great Silk Road linking the civilizations of the East and the West. The route took its name from silk, the commodity most in demand in Europe from China during the Roman period.

Economy.
In addition to beautiful landscapes and great history, Uzbekistan is also the world's fourth - largest cotton nation, world's seventh - largest gold producer and harbors significant reserves of oil and natural gas, as well as uranium, silver, copper, zinc, coal and lead. Other mainstays of Uzbek economy include fruit and vegetables, animal husbandry and textiles, but it is the republic's mineral wealth that most excites foreign investors.

The political system.
The political system of Uzbekistan is based on its Constitution in accordance to which the highest legislative body is a bicameral parliament - Senate and Oliy Madjlis (Supreme Council).The President who heads both the State and the Government is elected for seven years by universal suffrage through direct ballot.


Distance between cities of Uzbekistan.


Untitled Document
Tash. And. Bukh. Gul. Djiz. Karshi Navoi Nam. Nakus Sam. Term. Ferg. Urg.
Tash 447 616 118 203 558 509 432 1255 354 708 419 1119
And. 447 784 375 421 668 669 67 1342 516 892 73 1566
Bukh. 616 784 485 363 161 125 778 558 268 434 749 503
Gul. 118 375 465 106 353 254 369 1027 201 557 340 1001
Djiz. 203 421 363 106 247 248 415 921 95 471 386 916
Karshi 558 668 161 353 247 241 662 719 152 273 663 664
Navoi 509 669 125 354 248 241 663 383 153 477 634 610
Nam. 432 67 778 369 415 662 663 1336 510 886 85 1552
Nakus 1255 1342 558 1027 921 719 683 1336 826 992 1307 136
Sam. 354 516 268 201 95 152 153 510 826 376 481 765
Term. 708 892 434 577 471 273 477 886 992 376 857 937
Ferg. 419 73 749 340 386 633 634 85 1307 481 857 1538
Urg. 1119 1566 503 1001 916 664 610 1552 136 765 937 1538


The distance between cities is indicated in km.